Researchers uncover earliest tobacco use in the Pacific Northwest
(Phys.org)—Native American hunter-gatherers living more than a thousand years ago in what is now northwestern California ate salmon, acorns and other foods, and now we know they also smoked tobacco—the earliest known usage in the Pacific Northwest, according to a new University of California, Davis, study.
"The study demonstrates that tobacco smoking was part of the northwestern California culture very early ... shortly after the earliest documented Pacific Northwest Coast plank house villages," said the study, published in the 发改委首明确停车场建设对社会资本开放.
Testing organic residues extracted from pipes, researchers from the UC Davis Department of Anthropology and the Fiehn Metabolomics Laboratory of the UC Davis Genome Center confirmed tobacco was smoked, and likely grown in the region, by at least A.D. 860.
Perhaps more importantly, the researchers say that additional studies may help them better understand the origins of nicotine addiction and the human management, geographic range extension and cultivation of tobacco. Indeed, as part of a second study, the authors have recently detected nicotine in ancient pipes from an 800-year-old site in the modern city of Pleasanton, Calif.
Though many people associate Porsche with pure performance cars, in recent years the brand has expanded their lineup to include the Panamera, a luxury large car shown here, as well as the Cayenne and Macan SUVs. According to most reviewers, the Panamera not only lives up to the performance heritage of the Porsche’s brand, but also coddles occupants with an opulent interior and the connectivity features today’s luxury buyer demands.
All but one of the other top 10 categories reflected public fascination with celebrities. Teen pop sensation Miley Cyrus was in third place in the search rankings and television personality Kim Kardashianwas not far behind at fourth place. They were followed by Lady Gaga at No. 5, actress Megan Fox in seventh place, with Justin Bieber, American Idol and Britney Spears completing the top 10. The iPhone stood out as the exception, coming in sixth.
The ranking includes schools from 26 countries, including 35 in the US, 10in the UK and nine in China. Renmin University of China School of Business in Beijing rose furthest, climbing 18 places to 43rd. Four schools made it into the ranking for the first time. These are led by Cambridge Judge Business School at 36th. France’s Grenoble Business School is ranked 70th, Turkey’s Sabanci University School of Management is at99th, and Brazil’s Coppead is at 100th.
Additional reporting from Stefan Wagstyl in Berlin
Prior to this recent testing, which used sensitive gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, researchers were unsure of the historical use of tobacco on the Pacific Northwest Coast. It was unclear, for example, whether European traders had brought tobacco to the area much later, or if some other plant had been smoked in the pipes, Tushingham said.
The alternative analysis is that the shift we have seen over the past three years is the beginning of a long-term structural shift which will see energy prices materially lower in real terms in the next half century than in the last. Those who take this view believe, to put it very simply, that the likely growth in supply is stronger than the growth in demand.
Phil Baty, editor of THE rankings, said: "China has introduced powerful policy drives, backed with serious funding, to produce world-class universities. In 2015, the country announced its excellence initiative, which aims to establish six of its universities in the leading group of global institutions by 2020."
Nothing tops the insensitivity and stupendous lack of awareness as Lohan's insensitive post five months ago.
6. "How I Met Your Mother" (3.0 million)
The malaise was not confined to those picking individual stock winners. Through December 1, aggregate hedge fund returns trailed the market to the point of farce. According to data compiled by Bloomberg, hedge funds were up an average of 2% on the year, just barely offering the coupon rate of a risk-free 10-year Treasury note. Over 1,000 funds are on track to close down in 2014, the worst year for liquidations since 2009.
"Hard to believe so many doctors lied in the papers. Can patients still trust them to help us treat diseases?" wrote one Sina Weibo user.
Online banking and P2P lending has developed rapidly in China amid a push by Beijing to expand financing for consumers and small businesses. Upwards of 2,000 companies operate in China’s P2P lending milieu.
But perhaps we are finally there. Perhaps the curtain had to fall on the show before it could fall on that part of the ready-to-wear shows. Perhaps the history hamster wheel that we seem to be on — which has seen us cycle through the 1970s as well as some of the big hair and bigger shoulder pads of the 1980s (yes, we are there again) — will finally stop turning.
No.5: What Made Phelps So Happy?
The history of James Bond theme songs isn't quite as long as some might suspect, however. The first two films in the series – Dr. No and From Russia With Love – didn't have opening songs, they had orchestral arrangements. Dr. No even segued into a weird rendition of "Three Blind Mice." Later on, On Her Majesty's Secret Service gave the opening number amiss and snuck its theme song into the middle and end of the movie.
In short, the period was so far like the present period, that some of its noisiest authorities insisted on its being received, for good or for evil, in the superlative degree of comparison only.
The study is available online.