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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

While at least four engines tend to repeat from one year’s 10 best list to the next, only two of last year’s powerplants remain recognized for 2014, the Honda Accord’s peppy and fuel-efficient 3.5-liter V6 and the powerful supercharged 3.0-liter V6 featured in the Audi S5.

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Coca-Cola (KO, Fortune 500) Chief Executive Muhtar Kent thinks as both a first-generation American as well as a business leader that immigration reform is good for business. Kent outlined in a February USA Today op-ed how "lucky" he felt to be able to make his life in the U.S. and his belief that foreign entrepreneurs should have the same opportunity. The CEO wrote that he supports immigration reform because immigration is "an essential part of the growth calculus for this great country."

以下是其中最值得期待的10部,我们相信这10部电影都将成为票房宠儿,值得反复欣赏。
5. Bank of America Corp.
胰腺产生胰岛素,如果你的胰腺没有这样做,你需要人工注射胰岛素。因此,糖尿病患者必须进行的日常事例是检查他们的血糖,并且在必要时注射胰岛素。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

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斗转星移关我何事?我的癖好才最重要。
The Tsinghua-Insead EMBA programme, launched in 2007, entered the FT rankings with a bang in 2012, going straight into fourth place with its very first cohort. The programme has since been ranked second, third, and finally has achieved first place in the rankings this year.
4. 外包就业服务

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

Large technology companies were criticised throughout 2017 for becoming too powerful, using their size to dominate markets and not paying enough attention to how the tools they create can be used for ill.
Beauty and Evolution
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Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
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  • The upshot is that Chinese trade looks to have been surprisingly strong last month. We expect exports to continue to perform well in the coming months on the back of strong global demand.
    The seven large brick tombs were likelyconstructed for people of wealth, the researchers said.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 是淡季还是降温 金华楼市连续两个月成交量放缓, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

2016红木家具价格走势如何?评论称:或持续下跌

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

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Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

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    Anti-dumping cases were much easier to bring in the US than in the EU where companies first had to pass a public interest test.
    最佳歌曲:

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 法国世界杯夺冠 华帝退款难被指有三种情形
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 铁总:2月23日铁路旅客发送量创春运单日历史新高

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

但“平均”讲的是以前的情况,不是未来的事实。乐观言论不会让牛市重启,新的警告声音也不会刺破旧的泡沫。周期有自己的生命,该上行的时候上行,该下行的时候下行。这是很自然的事情。
一些最近发表的科学论文说,高空急流中这种持续较长的怪现象,由于全球变暖正在导致北极地区海洋中的冰迅速融化而变得更可能发生,但许多主要的科学家还没有被这种观点说服。
会。在2018年美联储可能多次加息的情况下,新兴市场中的交易可能会波动起伏。有时可能感觉有点像2013年“削减恐慌”(taper tantrum)重演。然而,平均GDP增速将升至5%,高于去年4.7%的预测值。这主要是因为近来处境艰难的俄罗斯和巴西境况将好转。
2016全球大学国际化水平排名是由《泰晤士报》高等教育从28个国家的200所大学选出的。它采用了几项指标来衡量,比如国际员工的比例,国际学生的数量,每个学院至少有一个不同国家的作者合著的研究论文出版等。
这是英国影评人参与评选的娱乐性奖项,为在参展影片中表现最精彩的狗颁发纪念奖章。颁奖仪式于上周五(5月22日)在英国展馆举行。今年的金棕榈狗狗奖颁给了一只名叫幸运的狗,它是马耳他梗犬(Maltese terrier)与贵宾犬(Poodle)的混血品种。幸运出现在米古尔?戈麦斯(Miguel Gomes)时长6小时的巨作《一千零一夜》(Arabian Nights)中,在剧中叫做迪克西。幸运的奖品是一只玩具狗骨头,通过视频幸运发表了简短的获奖感言(汪)。但据法新社报道,在这大家其乐融融的时刻,一位法国记者认为在极具魅力的影展间隙举办这样的颁奖仪式真是“英国人愚蠢性格的无端干扰”。“在法国人看来,这有些奇怪,”他在报道中说。“英国人真是不可思议。”
办公室总有一两个让人让大多数人都无法容忍的人,但是如果你不喜欢大多数的同事,那么你的工作就会变得不愉快因为你不得不整天和他们在一起工作。如果你再也不能容忍他们,试试找一个你能够和里面的职员和平相处的公司了。
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These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • Exports to both South Korea and Asean countries fell by about 3 per cent, however, while those to re-exporter Hong Kong dropped by more than 16 per cent.
  • 广州二手市场“金九”成色不足
  • Murder on the Orient Express
    Effectively strengthening environmental protection
  • 广州再现用工荒 家具业基本工资3200元乏人问津?
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

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  • 珍妮弗?劳伦斯曾于去年凭藉《乌云背后的幸福线》(Silver Linings Playbook)获得金球奖,而今年再度登台领奖的她表示,获奖感言还是让她倍感紧张。
    THE NIGHTLY SHOW WITH LARRY WILMORE (Comedy Central, Jan. 19) Mr. Wilmore’s topical comedy show replaces “The Colbert Report” at 11:30 p.m. and represents the latest opportunity to introduce some diversity to late-night programming. No pressure there!
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    Did you have to worry about these little things when you were my age? 在您那个年代,您曾经担心过我们现在担心的事吗?
    5. "Dexter" (3.1 million)
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    想知道2013年的最差工作是哪些吗?报社记者以其令人尴尬的特质,取代伐木工人成为今年的最差工作。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 25家房企业绩过千亿 后半个月开启冲刺模式 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

IMF:香港明年GDP预计增幅2.5% 房地产市场需调整

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

多家房企重金收购存量资产 改造+长期持有经营成主流

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

三季度机构“看多”楼市 未来成交量或进一步上升

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

统计局:11月份全国城镇调查失业率为4.8% 同比降0.1%

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 多年以前,布莱恩·克兰斯顿还未在《绝命毒师》中饰演沃尔特·怀特,他曾和哥哥一起在一家餐馆打工。那儿的主厨是个非常刻薄的人。2011年,在马克·马龙的电台节目里当播客时,克兰斯顿如此描述道:"无论你对他多好,他还是讨厌你。"因此,所有的服务生平时都在谈论着如何谋杀他。克兰斯顿说这就是"他们平时讨论的所有内容"。
  • Agricultural raw materials, especially the so called soft commodities such as sugar, coffee and cotton, have been among the top performers this year.
  • 万科改造深圳城中村引争议,租户担心房租飞涨

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 首先必须了解的一件事是,人格类型与基因无关。这意味着D型人格特征并不是无法改变的。另外,测验也并不意味着测验的结果会决定你的命运。心理学研究表明,任何人格特征都可以改变。
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • Will the 10-year Treasury yield finish the year above 3 per cent
    Jack Ma, founder and executive chairman of e-commerce giant Alibaba Group topped the ranking of China's richest IT people for the third consecutive year.
    But the duo topped the trending celebrities section followed by 'X Factor' judges Gary Barlow and Tulisa.
  • budget

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • Plum Alley:
  • 水性涂料要被危险废物名录“除名”?
  • 《受虐待经历影响的瑞典“女权主义外交政策”倡导者》(Sweden’s Proponent of ‘Feminist Foreign Policy,’ Shaped by Abuse)

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 广州:租房市场60㎡以下户型成交占半
  • Household substance abuse
  • 天津首判“炒房合同”无效!怎么判定是炒房?
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

燕郊挂牌房源激增却门店冷清 中介转战秦皇岛?

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 超200亿资金涌入 智能家居将驶入快车道
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 节能环保型家居建材2014整体走好
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

2013年到中国旅游的外国游客还是选择避开了北京。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

To Frans de Waal [The Netherlands and USA] and Jennifer Pokorny [USA] for discovering that chimpanzees can recognize other chimpanzees from seeing photographs of their rear ends.
The history of James Bond theme songs isn't quite as long as some might suspect, however. The first two films in the series – Dr. No and From Russia With Love – didn't have opening songs, they had orchestral arrangements. Dr. No even segued into a weird rendition of "Three Blind Mice." Later on, On Her Majesty's Secret Service gave the opening number amiss and snuck its theme song into the middle and end of the movie.
The area is close to the city centre and the demolition contractors had to make sure that when they brought down the buildings they did not damage a light rail viaduct nearby or a shopping mall and electricity sub-station.
长久以来,科学家一直在研究干细胞分化为心脏组织的潜力,今年当他们创造出可以自己搏动的心脏组织时,这一研究工作达到了一个重要的里程碑。
失业率减幅在2015年的下降得可能不会那样的迅速,据经济学家所言,特别是如果更多的人进入劳动力市场由于更容易找到工作。尽管如此和2014年相似的大量招聘和录用将会使低的失业率数据显得更加的可信。
对于网瘾的焦虑导致了一个定位模糊的新行业的出现:网癖训练营,由退伍军人管理,承诺帮助青少年戒除网瘾。但是 由新京报与镜报在近日发表的调査报告中显示,在郑州林伯强新思路生活训练学校(该学校声称自己是河南省东部的一个网瘾康复营)中存在虐待的情况,至少一名学生死亡。
We will promote the liberalization and facilitation of international trade and investment.
adj. 一致的,始终如一的
“The Man Who Knew is an impressive work of scholarship,” Lionel Barber, editor of the FT and chair of the book award judges, said. “It’s a masterpiece of political economy and, above all, it’s a great and enjoyable read.”
One explanation could be that significantly more men than women work in the industry’s best-paying fields. A third of men work in private equity orventure capital, investment banking or mergers and acquisitions, andhedge funds compared with only 19 per cent of women.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

建材行业:关注国企改革转型及区域规划三主线

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 智能水瓶
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • The raised decoration shows a cartouche — an oval frame around Egyptian hieroglyphics indicating a royal name. Above the frame archaeologists could make out the symbol of an eye and that of a cobra.
  • 天宫一号首次人工维修装上新地板
  • 想要改善自己的生活,而不只是学业,最好的方法之一就是冥想。每天花上十五分钟,静下心来,集中注意力并充满自信。
  • 2017年建材领域新材料产业发展前瞻
  • The best bosses understand that there must be a balance between the company or client’s needs and the needs of his or her employees. The best bosses are willing to listen and talk about any issues an employee may be having because they understand that a happy employee is a more productive employee。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 各地楼市成交量冷热不均 二元分化格局或将加剧
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • “2017年上半年,我们将看到许多头条新闻报道(新兴市场出口增长)提速,”瑞银(UBS)新兴市场跨资产战略部门主管巴努?巴韦贾(Bhanu Baweja)表示。他认为,今年第一季度新兴市场出口(以美元计)将同比增长8%至13%,“完全摆脱”目前报道的负增长。
  • 单词impresario 联想记忆:

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

地产业“过剩产能”待消化 三年库存增长104%

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